Riding a bike is fun and still adds up as an exercise. The momentum of the speed adds up the joy but are we not curious to know why do bikes stay upright?
Several people feel fascinated by such a question. It seems to raise different opinions concerning its physics and how each part of the bike relates to one another.
When we look close to the bike's wheel, it gains support to stay upright due to the gyroscopic effect. As a result, a restoring force occurs, thus enabling the speed to double. Also, the caster effect, or what we call the trail helps in maintaining the stability of the bike.
Scientists have not yet solved the mystery of how to do bikes stay upright. Only some speculations revolving around gyroscopic effect and fork trail are the common theories known as of now. But such aspects cannot serve as the answers to the question above since people can build bikes without such effects and still stay upright.
I will explain the gyroscopic effect and its impact on balancing the bike not to tumble. Although some people think it's the trail causing the caster effect, the gyroscopic effect helps a bike gain stability. Also, contradicting the scientists some facts will prove that mind control and mass distribution are the other two points that make bikes stay upright.
Understanding the Basics
We need to backtrack to the basics to understand how bikes have come along before what we ride today. Penny-farthing is an excellent example since it had no brakes, zero gearing, different wheel sizes, plus hard tires. Such bikes are not easy to ride unless one is super-pro. Thanks to the invention of modern bikes, these days we enjoy them a lot since our bikes have springs beneath the seats and cool tires.
The cycling and balancing need each part or object of the bike to play a crucial role. Let's take a look at particular parts of the bike:
- Gears: They play a key role in balancing the bike when one opts to try different terrain. They control the bike on acceleration, either riding on top of the hill or down. Also, they offer speed while balancing the bike.
- Wheels: Wheels are much heroes of the bike as other human legends. Wheels entail tiny and thick spoke that can buckle when one loads their weight. However, they act as an arch due to the axle pulling to the rim when one sits on the seat and offer comfort. The same applies similar when one hangs on a ropes' frame while sitting on a swing.
The Main Question
Since the invention of bikes, scientists seem interested in understanding the interaction of external forces with bicycle parts and how those parts interact themselves. Currently, one can say that we have an answer since we understand the forces behind cycling. However, we might differ due to an unresolved opinion on why bikes stay upright. A quick answer to that will say, a bike can stay upright because of the gyroscopic effect.
The gyroscopic effect plays a crucial role in keeping the wheel upright. When the wheel is fast enough, it receives a restoring force from gyroscopic effects to double its speed, thus staying upright. A racing cyclist has the potential of feeling gyroscopic effects since they ride faster than a normal cyclist. If one wants to experience the gyroscopic effect, they can try to use a hand-held blender or a hair drier that's high-power.
Different designs of a bicycle will make a bike easy to ride and others less easy to handle. When designing a bike, one can tilt the steering column to ensure the trail helps a rider. The trail is the intersection point of the steering axis from the steering tube with the ground and slightly behind where the front wheel comes in contact with the ground. When the trail is longer, it proves the point that a bike can become more stable.
To elaborate on this aspect, take an example: one rides a bike and leans to the right, but their hands are not on the steering. There will definitely be a force that will make the front wheel turn right. In this case, the trail will help a rider stabilize the bike as one can steer by slightly leaning of slight left and right. Mind you; the rider is hands-freer on steering.
A rider is the only person who can keep the bike upright since it is something to do with mind-control and consciousness. Let's demonstrate by asking a rider to cross hands; it is impossible even to start the bike to ride. Also, if the gyroscopic effect is the answer, why do people tend to fall instantly if they switch hands while riding.
Although people might argue that street performers usually ride bikes in a reverse-geared while steering. Such people take months to do so by practicing and training their minds to ride in such a manner. It is all about mind control by unlearning how to ride normally.
Do the Gyroscopic Effects Help Bikes to Stay Upright
Well, not really; the gyroscopic effect does not help to stay upright unless one rides much faster. Though one might demonstrate that it does, its impact is relatively low to keep one upright while riding. The spinning wheel placed backward wipes off the importance of the gyroscopic effect. Such an aspect proves that the gyroscopic effect does not matter in keeping the bike upright, and it is one's mind alone.
However, when one learns how to ride, especially kids, they need to avoid trainer wheels. The brain does not learn to balance the bike since trainers' wheels stabilize the bike even before touching the ground. The brain needs to experience wobbling to learn better; we have to wobble more to learn easily and quickly.
A contradicting fact concerning the gyroscopic effect is that if the bike stays upright for such a reason, it would be possible for each individual to do so. One would pick a bike and go freely without tumbling. However, people need to understand that riding a bike resembles walking; we all need to learn first before riding. The bike-rider system is the skill that enables riders not to wobble when cycling a bike.
One can experience tiny movements when riding, i.e., steering a little bit left and right. For beginners, it is very visible as they wobble much, but one can subconsciously steer to avoid falling either right or left. In addition, the wobbles, though might seem little, they hold an essential fact to understand why cycling on a narrow straight path is nearly impossible. This aspect shows how it is challenging for one to make side-to-side movements.
The small corrections are known to be the heart of track standing. At the traffic light, cyclists might balance themselves by using their pedals to stand without their feet on the ground. Usually, they rock the pedals back and forward to balance themselves and standstill.
One can alter the aspect of the gyroscopic effect and build a bike that does not depend on that. A spinning wheel placed backward is a good example to elaborate on such an aspect, even though it might have more speed than the normal one. A bike with relative speed can continue rolling without falling, even without a cyclist. When one learns how to ride a bike, their skill keeps them going and riding the bike; there is no gyroscopic effect.
Bikes tend to have an inbuilt mechanism that helps them to steer without a rider on top. Such an aspect shows that a rider is not necessarily needed for the bikes to stay upright. In this case, the interaction between the bike's roll and steer is essential and plays a crucial role in keeping the bike upright.
Apart from the gyroscopic effect and trail, the mass involved in the steering assembly proves another fact behind stability. The steering assembly includes a stem, bar, headset, and fork, all such aspects help to guide a bike and correct it when it leans in a fall direction. How much mass theory works is still an unknown fact that one cannot understand. However, it is essential to give the bike stability to stay upright.
What Scientists Believe
At this point, scientists believe that a bike can stay upright if only two theories applied to it remains:
Scientists believe that a front-wheel can act like a gyroscope a fact that it spins quickly in the forward direction. The torque applied by the gyroscope enables handlebars to turn right when one tips the bike right. Such an aspect causes steering whereby the wheels will stay underneath thus staying upright.
The scientists believe that the caster effect or trail can keep steering through self-alignment. Let's say a bike moves in a forward direction and it changes, though the wheel will follow the same pattern, the trail will cause the bike to self-align to the correct point. This is because the bike's front wheel touches the ground slightly before the point where the steering axis is in contact with the ground.
To explain this further, take an example of an office chair. When one looks at the wheels at the bottom, one will observe they reorient themselves when moving the chair. This aspect falls under the same theory that, as long as the contact point of the wheel and the ground lies behind the steering axis of the chair, it will self-align.
What Causes Stability
The above theories are correct, but they are not the only reason that keeps a bike upright. A bike can stay upright without gyroscopic effect and caster effect or trail. Building a counter-spinning wheel will do away with the gyroscopic effect and also the caster effect. This is possible since one eliminates the wheel's angular momentum and contact point with the ground.
When you put such aspects into practice it shows what a regular bike will do when pushed forward. It does the weaving or wobbling by heading right and left while self-correcting. When it leans to the right it steers in the right direction. Such a bike does not need a gyroscopic effect or trail; though it proves the point, it is not designed as per the consumer's need.
The mass distribution whereby it is high on the front and low in the back causes the wheels not to fall over. Although it is a weird design at the moment, it is a standing point to prove we can do away with the two effects and still gain stability.
About THE AUTHOR
Mountain biking is more than just a hobby for me - it's a way of life. I love the challenge and excitement that comes with it, and I'm always pushing myself to go faster and ride harder. Some people might think that mountain biking is dangerous, but I see it as the only way to live.Read More About Danny Lawson